Pink Floyd external image Pink-Floyd---One-Of-My-Turns.jpg

Pink Floyd were an English rock band who, in the late 1960s, earned recognition for their psychedelic and space rock music, and in the 1970s, as they evolved, for their progressive rock music. Pink Floyd's work is marked by philosophical lyrics, sonic experimentation, innovative album cover art, and elaborate live shows. One of rock music's most critically acclaimed and commercially successful acts, the group has sold over 200 million albums worldwide including 74.5 million certified units in the United States. Pink Floyd influenced contemporary artists such as Nine Inch Nails and Dream Theater.
Pink Floyd were formed in 1965, soon after Syd Barrett joined The Tea Set, a group that consisted of architecture students Nick Mason, Roger Waters, Richard Wright and Bob Klose. Klose left shortly after, but the group had moderate mainstream success and were a popular fixture on London's underground music scene. The erratic behaviour of Barrett prompted his colleagues to add guitarist and singer David Gilmour to the line-up. Following Barrett's departure, bass player and singer Roger Waters became the lyricist and dominant figure in the band, which thereafter achieved worldwide critical and commercial success with the concept albums The Dark Side of the Moon, Wish You Were Here, Animals, and rock opera The Wall.
Wright left the band in 1979, and Waters in 1985, but Gilmour and Mason (joined by Wright) continued recording and touring under the name Pink Floyd. Waters used legal means to try to keep them from using the name, declaring Pink Floyd a spent force, but the parties reached an out-of-court settlement allowing Gilmour, Mason and Wright to continue as Pink Floyd. The band again enjoyed worldwide success with A Momentary Lapse of Reason (1987) and The Division Bell (1994), and Waters continued as a solo musician, releasing three studio albums. Although for some years relations between Waters and the remaining three members were sour, the band reformed for a one-off performance at Live 8.

History external image Gilmour.jpg external image Mason.jpg external image Wrigt.jpg external image Waters.jpg external image Barrett.jpg (DEAD)

Early years

Origins

Nick Mason (b. 27 January 1944) and Roger Waters (b. 6 September 1943Yet at the Regent Street Polytechnic in London, where both were studying architecture. They spoke for the first time with each other in 1963 when Waters asked to borrow Mason's car. Mason played drums in a band called The Hotrods in his teenage years, and Waters played guitar. Both were avid fans of Radio Luxembourg and their shared tastes led to a friendship based on a mutual appreciation of music.
The pair first played together in a band formed by Keith Noble and Clive Metcalfe, along with Noble's sister Sheilagh, an occasional singer in the band. They were joined later by fellow student Richard Wright (b. 28 July 1943).With the addition of Wright the band became a sextet, and took the name Sigma 6. Wright's girlfriend Juliette Gale was often a guest artist, and Waters initially played rhythm guitar, before moving to bass. Early gigs were for private functions, and the band rehearsed in a tearoom in the basement of Regent Street Polytechnic. Sigma 6 played songs by The Searchers as well as material written by fellow student Ken Chapman, who became their manager and songwriter. Wright taught himself to play guitar aged 12, and also played trumpet and piano, but uncertain about his future he had enrolled at Regent Street Polytechnic in 1962. His first meeting with Waters had been when the latter asked to borrow a cigarette (a request Wright declined). He took private lessons in musical theory and composition at the Eric Gilder School of Music,and although Mason and Waters were competent students, Wright found architecture of little interest and he left the polytechnic after a year of study, moving to the London College of Music.
In September 1963 Mason and Waters moved into the lower flat of Stanhope Gardens, a house owned by a part-time tutor at the Regent Street Polytechnic, Mike Leonard. Leonard was a designer of light machines (perforated discs spun by electric motors to cast patterns of lights on the walls; these would be demonstrated in an early edition of Tomorrow's World), and for a time performed alongside the band, as a keyboardist. They used the front room of the flat for rehearsals, where all the equipment was permanently set up.Mason later moved out of the flat, and accomplished guitar player Bob Klose moved in. Their name changed several times, from the Megadeaths, to the Architectural Abdabs, and the Tea Set. Metcalfe and Noble left the band shortly thereafter.
Syd Barrett, then aged 17,arrived in London in the autumn of 1963, to study at Camberwell College of Art. Encouraged by his father, who died when Barrett was 14 years old, he learned to play the piano, the banjo, and the guitar. Keen to help her son get over the loss of his father, Barrett's mother encouraged his band, The Mottoes, to perform in their front room. Waters and Barrett were childhood friends, and Waters often visited such gigs. He joined the Tea Set in 1964, and moved into Stanhope Gardens alongside Klose and Waters. Mason found him "delightful", and recalled their first meeting:

In a period when everyone was being cool in a very adolescent, self-concious way, Syd was unfashionably outgoing; my enduring memory of our first encounter is the fact that he bothered to come up and introduce himself to me.—Nick Mason,

As "The Pink Floyd Sound"

With the Tea Set lacking the vocals of Noble and Metcalfe, Klose introduced them to Chris Dennis, a technician with the Royal Air Force. During Dennis' tenure, the Tea Set acquired an alternative name—the Pink Floyd Sound. The name was derived from the given names of two blues musicians that Barrett had in his record collection—Pink Anderson and Floyd Council. On the spur of the moment, Barrett created it upon the discovery that another band also named Tea Set were to perform at one of their gigs.
Dennis was posted to Bahrain, thrusting Barrett into the spotlight as frontman.Minus Wright—who had taken a break from studying—they acquired studio time between 1964–1965. They recorded a cover version of "I'm A King Bee", and songs written by Barrett, using the recordings as promotional material. Meanwhile, Wright had recorded and published a song called "You're The Reason Why", for which he was paid an advance fee of £75. They later became the resident band at the Countdown Club near Kensington High Street in London, and played three sets of 90 minutes from late at night, until early the following morning. According to Mason, this period "… was the beginning of a realisation that songs could be extended with lengthy solos." They auditioned for the ITV programme Ready Steady Go! (whose producers expressed enough interest to invite them back into the studio audience the following week), another club, and two rock contests. Bob Klose left in 1965, at the behest of his father and college tutors, and Barrett took over on lead guitar.
They began to receive paid bookings including at the Marquee Club in March 1966 where they were watched by Peter Jenner. The band played mostly rhythm and blues songs, but Jenner was impressed with the strange acoustic effects that Barrett and Wright created during their performance. Jenner traced Waters and Mason to their flat,, as well as a childhood history. Using inherited money they set up Blackhill Enterprises and purchased new instruments for the band, as well as equipment which included a Selmer PA system. Under their guidance, they began performing on London's underground music scene, notably at a venue booked by the [[w/index.php?title=London_Free_School&action=edit&redlink=1|London Free School]] in Notting Hill. At the All Saints Hall they were confronted by an audience whose members were often under the influence of drugs, and who arrived with few or no expectations. Question and answer sessions would often be held following each performance. The Pink Floyd Sound felt encouraged to work on the instrumental excursions they had experimented with at the Countdown Club, and rudimentary light shows projected by coloured slides and domestic lights were used to powerful effect. To celebrate the launch of the Free School's magazine International Times, they performed at the opening of The Roundhouse, attended by 2000-strong crowd which included such celebrities as Alexander Trocchi, Paul McCartney, and Marianne Faithfull.Jenner and King's diverse array of social connections were meritorious, gaining the band important coverage in The Financial Times and The Sunday Times.

At the launching of the new magazine IT the other night a pop group called the Pink Floyd played throbbing music while a series of bizarre coloured shapes flashed on a huge screen behind them. Someone had made a mountain of jelly which people ate at midnight and another person had parked his motorbike in the middle of the room. All apparently very psychedelic.
By October 1966 the band were playing more of Barrett's songs, which would later feature on Pink Floyd's first album. Their relationship with Blackhill Enterprises was strengthened when they became full partners, each with an unprecedented one-sixth share. More gigs followed, including at the Commonwealth Institute, and one at a Catholic youth club whose owner refused to pay. At a magistrates' court a judge agreed with the owner, who claimed that the band's performance "wasn't music". This was not the only occasion on which they encountered such entrenched opinions, but they were better received at the UFO Club in London. They enjoyed playing there, and used the in-house lighting to good effect. Barrett's performances were exuberant, "… leaping around and the madness, and the kind of improvisation he was doing … he was inspired. He would constantly manage to get past his limitations and into areas that were very, very interesting. Which none of the others could do." The audience was receptive to the music they played, but unlike some of their spectators they remained drug-free —"We were out of it, not on acid, but out of the loop, stuck in the dressing room at UFO."
Although in 1967 Mason admitted that the psychedelic movement had "taken place around us—not within us", the Pink Floyd Sound were present at the head of a wave of interest in this new style of music. There was substantial interest from record companies, and steered by Joe Boyd in January 1967 they recorded several songs at Sound Techniques in West Hampstead, including "Arnold Layne", and a version of "Interstellar Overdrive". They also travelled to Sussex and recorded a short music film for "Arnold Layne". Despite early interest from Polydor, the band signed with EMI with a £5,000 advance, and Boyd was unfortunately left out of the deal.

The Wall external image 6a00c2251cc2dc8fdb00c22526fd5e8e1d-pi

This article is about the Pink Floyd Album. For other Pink Floyd works based around this album, see The Wall (Pink Floyd). For other uses, see The Wall (disambiguation).

The Wall is the ninth studio album by English progressive rock group Pink Floyd. Presented as a double album, it was released on 30 November 1979. It was subsequently performed live, with elaborate theatrical effects, and adapted into a film.
The Wall is a rock opera that centres on the character, "Pink", who is largely based on bassist Roger Waters. Pink encounters obstacles throughout his life, beginning with the loss of his father during World War II, continuing with abuse from his schoolteachers, an overprotective mother, and the desertion of his wife—all of which factor into Pink's isolation from society, represented by the metaphorical "Wall" of the album title.external image the-wall-dvd.jpgexternal image the-wall.jpg
As with most of their previous albums, The Wall is a concept album, but deals largely with the theme of personal isolation. The concept was inspired by an event that occurred during the band's 1977 In the Flesh Tour, where Waters' frustration with the behaviour of the audience reached a point where he spat in the face of a fan near the stage. Waters would come to regret his actions and spoke of his desire to build a wall between himself and the audience. The Wall features a notably harsher and more theatrical style than their previous releases. During production of the album, keyboardist Richard Wright left the band, but returned to perform during later concert performances as a salaried musician.
The Wall is one of the best-selling double albums of all time, and is in the top five best-selling albums of all time in the US.

Background

Pink Floyd's In the Flesh Tour was their first playing in large stadiums, and in July 1977—on the final date at the Montreal Olympic Stadium—a small group of noisy and excited fans in the front row of the audience irritated Waters to such an extent that he spat at one of them. Waters was not the only person who felt depressed about playing to such large audiences, as Gilmour refused to perform the band's usual twelve-bar blues encore. During a playfight backstage with manager Steve O'Rourke Waters injured his foot, and returning from the hospital to his hotel he spoke to Bob Ezrin and a psychiatrist sharing the car of his sense of alienation on the tour. He hated playing in stadiums, and told of how he sometimes felt like building a wall to separate himself from the audience. With both Gilmour and Wright now in France recording solo albums, and Mason producing Steve Hillage's Green, Waters busied himself writing new material.external image Pink_Floyd_The_Wall-front.jpg
The spitting incident became the basis for a new concept, based around the audience's separation from the performers on stage. In July 1977 the band reconvened at Brittania Row, where Waters presented them with two new ideas. The first was a ninety-minute demo given the provisional title Bricks in the Wall, and the other was what would later become his first solo album, The Pros and Cons of Hitch Hiking. The former was chosen to be their next album, although both Mason and Gilmour were initially cautious, as Waters' as yet had offered only a basic outline of the new concept. By September 1977 however, an escalating financial situation became critical. In 1976 the band had become involved with financial advisers [[w/index.php?title=Norton_Warburg_Group&action=edit&redlink=1|Norton Warburg Group]] (NWG), who became their collecting agents, and financial planners. Between £1.6M and £3.3M of the band's money was invested in high-risk venture capital schemes, primarily to reduce the band's exposure to high UK taxes. It soon became obvious that the band were losing money. Not only did NWG invest in failing businesses, they also left the band liable for tax bills as high as 83% of their income. They terminated their relationship with NWG, demanding the return of any cash not yet invested.
The band therefore urgently needed to earn money, and the scope of the new concept (26 tracks across four sides) was such that it needed to be a double album. Bob Ezrin was therefore brought in as co-producer. Ezrin had recently worked on Peter Gabriel's debut solo album, and was recommended by Waters' girlfriend, Carolyne Christie, who had worked as Ezrin's secretary. From the start, Waters left Ezrin in no doubt as to who was in charge: "You can write anything you want. Just don't expect any credit". Ezrin, Waters, and Gilmour read Waters' concept, keeping what they liked, and discarding what they thought was not good enough. Waters and Ezrin worked mostly on the story, improving the concept. Ezrin then wrote a forty-page script, and presented it to the rest of the band: "The next day at the studio, we had a table read, like you would with a play, but with the whole of the band, and their eyes all twinkled, because then they could see the album." Ezrin broadened the storyline to distance it from the autobiographical work that Waters had written, and instead based it on the central character of Pink. Although Waters wrote most of the material on the album, Gilmour contributed to songs like "Run Like Hell", and "Young Lust". Ezrin also co-wrote "The Trial". Engineer Nick Griffiths later said of the Canadian producer: "Ezrin was very good in The Wall, because he did manage to pull the whole thing together. He's a very forceful guy. There was a lot of argument about how it should sound between Roger and Dave, and he bridged the gap between them."

Concept and storyline

The album's overriding themes are based upon the causes and implications of self-imposed isolation, symbolised by the metaphorical wall of the title. The songs create an approximate storyline of events in the life of the protagonist, Pink. His father dies during Pink's childhood (Waters' father was killed during World War II). He is oppressed by his overprotective mother, and tormented at school by tyrannical, abusive teachers. Each of these traumas becomes "another brick in the wall". Pink becomes a rock star, his relationships marred by infidelity, drug use, and outbursts of violence. As his marriage crumbles, Pink finishes building the wall, completing his isolation from human contact.
Now hidden behind his freshly completed "wall", Pink's crisis escalates, culminating in an hallucinatory on-stage performance where he believes that he is a fascist dictator, and that his concerts are like Neo-Nazi rallies, where he sets his men on fans he considers unworthy. Tormented with guilt, he places himself on trial, his inner judge ordering him to "tear down the wall", opening Pink to the outside world. The album's end runs into its beginning with the closing words "Isn't this where..."; the first song on the album, "In the Flesh?", begins with the words "...we came in?"—with a continuation of the melody of the last song, "Outside the Wall"—hinting at the cyclical nature of Waters' theme.
The album includes several references to former band-member Syd Barrett. "Nobody Home" hints at Barrett's condition during Pink Floyd's abortive US tour of 1967, such as "wild, staring eyes", "Hendrix perm", and "elastic bands keeping my shoes on". The following song, "Comfortably Numb", is an allegory of Waters' experiences during the band's 1977 In the Flesh Tour, where he was injected with a muscle relaxant to combat the effects of hepatitis.

Recording

Recording took place at a number of locations. [[w/index.php?title=Super_Bear_Studios&action=edit&redlink=1|Super Bear Studios]] was used between January and July 1979, with Waters recording his vocals at the nearby Studio Miraval. Supervising the orchestral arrangements recorded for the album, Michael Kamen used CBS Studios in New York in September. From 1 September–31 October the band used Cherokee Studios and The Village Recorder in Los Angeles. They also planned to use the [[w/index.php?title=Sundance_Productions&action=edit&redlink=1|Sundance Productions]] studio in Los Angeles on 2 October, to record the Beach Boys, but this was cancelled on the day. From 1–6 November they were at the [[w/index.php?title=Producers_Workshop&action=edit&redlink=1|Producers Workshop]], also in Los Angeles.Brian Humphries was emotionally drained by his five years with the band, and was replaced by James Guthrie, who came with a recommendation from Alan Parsons Guthrie was hired as a co-producer: "I saw myself as a hot young producer ... When we arrived, I think we both felt we'd been booked to do the same job." The early sessions at Britannia Row were emotionally charged, as Ezrin, Guthrie and Waters each had strong ideas about the direction the album would take. Relations between the band were at a low ebb, and Ezrin's role expanded to that of an intermediary, between Waters and the rest of the band. Britannia Row was, initially, felt to be inadequate for The Wall. The band upgraded much of the equipment, and by March another set of demos were complete. However their former relationship with NWG placed them at risk of bankruptcy, and they were advised to leave the UK by no later than 6 April 1979, and for a minimum of one year. Non-residency meant that any money they made while out of the country would not be taxed, and within a month all four members and their families had left the country. Waters became domiciled in Switzerland, Mason in France, and Gilmour and Wright in the Greek Islands. They moved some of their equipment from Britannia Row to Super Bear Studios near Nice. Both Gilmour and Wright were familiar with the studio, having recorded there during production of their solo albums, and liked the atmosphere. Wright lived at the studio, and Waters and Gilmour stayed in houses nearby. Mason, who initially lived at the studio with Wright, eventually moved into Waters' villa near Vence. Ezrin stayed in Nice.
Recording sessions were placed on a tight schedule, dictated by Waters, however Ezrin's poor timekeeping caused problems. Mason found the producer's behaviour "erratic", but used his elaborate and unlikely excuses for his lateness as ammunition for "tongue-in-cheek resentment". Ezrin's cut of the royalties was less than the rest of the band, and he found Waters' demeanour similar to that of a "bully", especially after the bassist had badges made for the band, that read NOPE (No Points Ezrin). Ezrin later admitted that he had marital problems, and was not "in the best shape emotionally", but Waters' relationship with Wright had broken down completely. The band were rarely in the studio together. Mason recorded his drum tracks early on, which Ezrin and Guthrie then spliced together. Guthrie would also work with Waters and Gilmour during the day, returning at night to record Wright's contributions. Wright, worried about the effect that the introduction of Ezrin would have on the band's internal relationships, was keen to have a producer's credit on the album (their albums up to that point had always stated "Produced by Pink Floyd"). Waters agreed to a trial period, after which Wright would be given a producer's credit, but after a few weeks both Waters and Ezrin expressed dissatisfaction with his methods. Ezrin eventually confronted Wright, who thereafter stopped coming into the studio during the day, and worked only at nights. Gilmour also expressed his annoyance, complaining that Wright's lack of input was "driving us all mad". Bob Ezrin later said "… it sometimes felt that Roger was setting him up to fail. Rick gets performance anxiety. You have to leave him alone to freeform, to create …" Wright had his own problems, with a failing marriage, and depression. The band's holidays were booked for August, after which they would reconvene at Cherokee Studios in Los Angeles, but Columbia offered the band a better deal in exchange for a Christmas release of the album, and Waters increased their workload accordingly; the nearby Studio Miraval was booked He also suggested starting recording in Los Angeles ten days earlier than agreed, and also hiring another keyboardist to work alongside Wright, whose keyboard parts had not yet been recorded. Wright however refused to cut short his family holiday in Rhodes.

The rest of the band's children were young enough to stay with them in France but mine were older and had to go to school. I was missing my children terribly.—Richard Wright,
What exactly happened next remains unclear. In Inside Out (2005) Mason says that Waters called O'Rourke, who was travelling to the US on the QE2, and told him to have Wright out of the band by the time Waters arrived in LA to mix the album. In Comfortably Numb (2008) however, the author states that Waters called O'Rourke and asked him to tell Wright about the new recording arrangements, and that Wright's response was apparently "Tell Roger to fuck off …". Wright disagreed with this recollection, stating that the band had agreed to record only through the spring and early summer, and that he had no idea they were so far behind schedule. Mason later wrote that Waters was "stunned and furious", and felt that Wright was not doing enough to help complete the album. Gilmour was on holiday in Dublin when he learnt of Waters' ultimatum, and tried to calm the situation. He later spoke with Wright and gave him his support, but reminded him about his lack of input on the album. Waters however insisted that Wright leave, else he would refuse to release The Wall. Several days later, worried about their financial situation, and the failing interpersonal relationships within the band, Wright quit. News of his departure was kept from the music press. Although his name did not appear anywhere on the finished album, he was employed as a session musician on the band's subsequent The Wall tour.